Japanese Acupuncture Styles: Curriculum

Actions & Effects of the Points & Channels I

Building upon the first year study of point location and meridian pathways, this course focuses on the energetic properties and functions of points and meridians. The points on each meridian are presented individually, as well as in comparison with other points on the same meridian and with points on other meridians sharing similar functions. Special groupings of points and their uses are discussed, and the general therapeutic domains of the channels are reviewed, including internal pathways and external meeting points. In addition, point prescriptions related to the conditions presented in the concurrent etiology and pathology courses are discussed in terms of individual and combined effects. Also reviewed are point categorizations, such as five phase functions, supplementation or dispersion, and cooling or warming. Finally, methods of combining points into effective treatment prescriptions are discussed in-depth and in reference to various systems of categorizing and relating points and meridians.

Actions & Effects of the Points & Channels II

Building upon the first-year study of point location and meridian pathways, this course focuses on the energetic properties and functions of points and meridians. The points on each meridian are presented individually, as well as in comparison with other points on the same meridian and with points on other meridians sharing similar functions. Special groupings of points and their uses are discussed, and the general therapeutic domains of the channels are reviewed, including internal pathways and external meeting points. In addition, point prescriptions related to the conditions presented in the concurrent etiology and pathology courses are discussed in terms of individual and combined effects. Also reviewed are point categorizations, such as five phase functions, supplementation or dispersion, and cooling or warming. Finally, methods of combining points into effective treatment prescriptions are discussed in depth and in reference to various systems of categorizing and relating points and meridians.

Advanced Needle Techniques (Elective)

This course explores advanced Chinese needle techniques, with didactic presentations as well as needling practice. Special needling techniques presented and practiced include those used for tonification and dispersion, complicated needling technique and electroacupuncture. The course also covers acupuncture techniques, point combinations and ancient acupuncture cases from the classic “Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion”.

Biochemistry

This course applies the concepts presented in general and organic chemistry to living organisms, and relates them to the pathophysiology of nutrition disorders and major metabolic syndromes. The course begins with the study of cell biochemistry and homeostasis, the transmission of information via hormones and neurotransmitters, regulation of osmolarity, and pH balance of  body fluids. Focusing on the structure, function, synthesis, and degradation of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, students also develop an understanding of how bio-molecules interact to provide the organism with the nutrition, homeostasis, and energy necessary for health.

Business Lab

This course is designed to help new acupuncture students frame their career goals in acupuncture and Oriental medicine (AOM). A panel discussion of acupuncturists who practice in various types of settings will set the stage for students to craft their own career vision. Panelists will include acupuncturists who have private practices, and who work in multidisciplinary or integrative medical settings. Practitioners of community-style acupuncture will also be represented. Students will learn how to best use their time at NESA to help them articulate and shape their career goals. Students will be encouraged to select assistantship and internship choices that help them articulate their own goals.

Chinese Acupuncture Studies Clinical Internship

Having extensively practiced clinical assessment and treatment skills, student interns begin to work directly with patients in clinical settings. Under close supervision, student interns assume responsibility for patients' care, including intake evaluation, diagnoses, structuring treatment plans, carrying out the treatments, and assessing progress. Interns also advise patients on health practices, arrange follow-up care, and make referrals. Clinical internships take place at the main NESA clinic and at NESA satellite clinics.  Clinics may be scheduled at various times during the academic year and interns will be responsible for some patient recruitment.

Chinese Nutrition

This introductory course gives students a basic understanding of the role that food and diet play in the healing process. The energetic nature of food, from a traditional Chinese medical perspective is explored, as is the influence that diet and nutrition have on the organ/meridian systems. Course topics include the influence of the five flavors, the thermal nature of foods, the effects of different cooking and preparation methods, and how these can enhance treatment of acute and chronic conditions. Although this course mainly focuses on the Eastern energetic view of food, certain practical, related Western holistic healing modalities are also presented. Additionally, specific, commonly encountered TCM patterns that can be directly affected by diet are discussed.

Chronic Pain: A Multidisciplinary Approach to a Complex Problem (Elective)

Chronic pain is the most challenging problem faced by any health practitioner. Although considerable progress in the neurophysiology of pain has led to a variety of innovative new treatments, the fact remains that only a small percentage of chronic pain sufferers find adequate relief over the long term. It’s no wonder then that patients in persistent pain fill the waiting rooms of busy acupuncturists. This short course is designed to introduce students to the complex phenomenon of persistent pain from the multidisciplinary perspective it deserves. After exploring the neuroanatomic, neurophysiologic, pharmacologic, psychology and sociologic aspects of pain, students will gain sufficient insight to judge for themselves when an allopathic approach serves patients well and why it often seems to come up short. This course is taught primarily by guest lecturers    
from the Tufts University School of Medicine’s Master's Program in Pain Research, Education and Policy.

Clinical Application of Adjunctive Techniques (Elective)

This course will enhance local treatment strategies for difficult/challenging clinical pathologies. The course will have both didactic and practical components. A comprehensive lecture will be followed by demonstration from the faculty, and then students will practice, treating each other. Topics will include Adrenal Exhaustion, Thyroid Disorder, Oketsu, Carpal Tunnel, and musculoskeletal pain/problems. Modalities explored will include use of the Hibiki-7 (outside of Divergent Channel treatment), Magnets, Manaka Hammer and Needle (dashin), Pachi-Pachi and Low Level Laser.  Students are required to purchase 800 gauss magnets and Manaka Hammer and Needle.

Clinical Assistantship

The clinical assistantship program provides students the opportunity to observe the practice of acupuncture and Oriental Medicine within a clinical setting and exposes them to different practice styles and professional approaches. Students observe practitioners diagnose and treat patients using acupuncture, classical raw Chinese herbal formulas, as well as more modern preparations and combinations of Chinese herbal medicine. Students participate in the intake and evaluation process looking at the tongue, palpating the pulse and discussing diagnosis, treatment plans, acupuncture point selection and herbal formula selection with the practitioner. During the first two years of the program, MAc students complete 150 hours and MAOM students complete 180 hours (see course outline for recommended hours per term) observing and assisting licensed acupuncturists and Chinese herbal medicine practitioners in the NESA Clinic and other clinical sites approved by NESA.

Clinical Case Management I

Designed to address issues and experiences that arise during clinical internships, this course explores cases presented by students and faculty. Discussions focus on diagnoses, various treatment plan options or techniques, the patient-practitioner relationship, case management and referral, and general patient care issues. Students review methods and systems for planning, carrying out and evaluating treatments and prognoses.

Clinical Case Management II

Designed to address issues and experiences that arise during clinical internships, this course explores cases presented by students and faculty. Discussions focus on diagnoses, various treatment plan options or techniques, the patient-practitioner relationship, case management and referral, and general patient care issues. Students review methods and systems for planning, carrying out and evaluating treatments and prognoses.

Clinical Skills of Traditional Chinese Medicine

This course is designed to allow students to refine and expand their clinical skills. Practicing skills on each other in small groups under faculty supervision, students locate and needle various points. Students also practice patient evaluation and diagnosis using The Four Examinations, learn to analyze and organize signs and symptoms of disharmony, and are introduced to the actions and effects of frequently used points.

CPR and Basic First Aid

This course teaches basic emergency procedures used in first aid situations. Among topics covered are basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), trauma, heat and cold injuries, burns, soft tissue injuries, bandaging and splinting techniques, and emergency childbirth. Upon successful completion of the course, students receive certification in CPR and Basic First Aid. Students must have current certification throughout their clinical internship.

Diagnostic Skills of Traditional Chinese Medicine

One of the main tenets of the Taoist approach to healing is the close observation of nature. From this orientation comes the traditional emphasis on perceiving the patient through the Four Examinations. Through lectures and practice, students develop skills in the traditional methods of Chinese medical diagnosis: observation (wang), audio olfaction (wen), enquiry (wen) and palpation including pulse diagnosis (qie). Students learn to record medical histories, note observations and present signs and symptoms on Oriental medical intake forms. After brief lectures, students work in groups under faculty supervision to develop their perceptual sensitivities and clinical assessment skills.

Divergent Channels and Muscle Meridians (Elective)

Divergent Channels are introduced in Chapter 11 of the Ling Shu. They are internal channels, which complete the network of yin/yang relationships between meridians. The Divergent Channels expand the range of indication for the regular meridians. Divergent Channels pass through the heart; clinically they can be used to address disorders of the heart such as manic depression, insomnia and dream disturbed sleep. The Muscle Meridians (not actual meridians) are written about in the Ling Shu Scroll 4, Section 13. The Muscle Meridians are superficial; they flow between the skin and flesh, control protection from, and response to, the external environment. They are circulated by wei qi and jing qi. Diagnostically, Akabane testing of the jing well points and testing of the meeting points of wei qi and jing qi will lead practitioners to a unique treatment strategy. This course has both didactic and practical components.

Experience, Experiments and the Soul (Elective)

This course is a series of lectures, discussions and exchanges on some of the fundamental philosophic, epistemological and clinical care questions of Oriental medicine. It explores how the practitioner of Oriental medicine ”knows” what the optimal and “correct” treatment is, evaluates efficacy and understands how treatments influence human life. This perspective of Oriental medicine is contrasted with how Western biomedicine grapples with such issues of fact and values, body and mind, disease and illness, experience and experiments, objectivity and subjectivity. The question of how the Oriental medical concept of “soul” (linghun) provides the framework for the psycho spiritual perspective of Oriental medicine is examined. The impact of this framework is practically evaluated in some very common herbal and acupuncture prescriptions so that students will have an opportunity to reconceptualize previously mastered material. The traditional Oriental perspective on the patient physician relationship and its impact on healing is studied. The course also critically inspects biomedicine and scientific research methods from the perspective of Oriental medicine. This is an opportunity for students to develop and reflect upon their own understanding of Oriental medicine and to self-examine their own “knowing” and “feelings.” It is assumed that such a deliberate reflexive process will provide the basis for students to become more competent and powerful healers.

General Biology

This survey of life systems lays the foundation for the study of human anatomy, physiology, and health.  The course begins with the study of cellular structure, metabolism, and reproduction, and proceeds to the study of tissues and more complex organisms, such as plants and vertebrates.  Also covered are genetics, evolution, ecology, and the interrelationships between organisms and their environments.

General Chemistry

This course is the first in a series of three chemistry courses that delve into the molecular basis of life, which is the foundation (from a Western medical perspective) for the study of human physiology and the mechanisms of health and disease.  Topics covered include the structure and properties of atoms and how different interatomic forces create and stabilize different types of molecules.  Basic concepts such as chemical equations, equilibria, the law of mass action, the properties of solutions, and acid-base and redox reactions, which are key reactions for the survival of organisms, are covered.

General Physics

This introductory course follows the historical evolution of physics.  After an introduction to mechanics, students investigate electrostatics, electricity, magnetism, light and contemporary physics.  Through demonstrations and experiments, students develop an understanding of how physical laws relate to the world.  Students also learn assessment techniques, including quantitative reasoning and conceptual problem solving.

Great Physicians of TCM and Biomedicine (Elective)

Great physicians of the past developed new theories and treatment principles based on the needs of patients during their era. They contributed their lifetime’s clinical experience to the treasure of our medical knowledge base. Students will learn about their lives and great works and be inspired by their passion to become a great practitioner of the future. Discussions will be focused on seven schools of thought: Cold Damage, Cooling School, Zang-Fu Pattern Differentiation School, Expel Excess School, Yin Nourishing School, Warm-tonifying School, and Febrile Diseases School. Understand the historical perspectives of biomedicine and TCM and opportunities for integration.

History and Cultural Foundations of Chinese Medical Systems

This course links the various healing arts of Chinese medicine with the underlying concepts from which they emanated. The major philosophies of the pre-Han period - Shamanism, Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism - and the concepts of qi, yinyang, microcosm macrocosm, and Five Element correspondences are examined in relation to the evolution of Chinese medical theory. The Nine Healing Arts of ancient China also are discussed. By studying the cultural, logical and theoretical foundations of Eastern medical systems, students explore how the culture in which a medical system evolves shapes theory and practice. Additionally, students are introduced to the major classic texts of traditional Chinese medicine, their effects on the evolution of medical theory, and their value today. With a focus on providing students with a foundation for understanding the evolution and pronunciation of Chinese medical terms, this course introduces the basic skills of Chinese character recognition and the Pin Yin system of Romanization. The recent evolution of acupuncture and Oriental medicine in China, the United States and other countries, the impact of Western science on Chinese medicine, and current professional trends in acupuncture are also covered.

Hospice and Palliative Care for the Acupuncturist (Elective)

This course prepares students to work with patients at the end of life, their families and caregivers. The course covers the history of hospice, medical practices in palliative care, and the role of the clinician in dealing with grief, death, and dying. Students will be prepared to serve on a hospice integrative medical team.

Human Anatomy and Physiology I

Using a systematic approach to human anatomy and physiology, this course focuses on the normal functioning of the human body.  Students study the skeletal, muscular, endocrine, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, reproductive, urinary and nervous systems.  The two-part course is offered during the fall and spring terms or as a 12-week summer intensive.

Human Anatomy and Physiology II

Using a systematic approach to human anatomy and physiology, this course focuses on the normal functioning of the human body.  Students study the skeletal, muscular, endocrine, respiratory, cardiovascular, digestive, reproductive, urinary and nervous systems.  The two-part course is offered during the fall and spring terms or as a 12-week summer intensive.

Internal Exercise

Internal exercise techniques strengthen the body and build qi. Students are able to choose courses in Tai Chi or Qigong to complete the two credit requirement. These courses help students establish a regimen of health and cultivate a deeper awareness of the subtle qi within their own bodies.

Introduction to Chinese Acupuncture Clinical Internship I

In this second phase of the clinical training program, students begin applying the theory and clinical skills they have learned in classrooms and observed during their clinical assistantships. Students refine their diagnostic skills by practicing differential diagnosis, researching cases, and presenting case analyses. After establishing accurate diagnoses, students articulate the treatment principles they are applying and identify appropriate treatment plans, including specific point prescriptions and other potential treatments. Under close faculty supervision, students refine their skills by practicing in small groups and on each other.

Introduction to Chinese Acupuncture Clinical Internship II

In this second phase of the clinical training program, students begin applying the theory and clinical skills they have learned in classrooms and observed during their clinical assistantships. Students refine their diagnostic skills by practicing differential diagnosis, researching cases, and presenting case analyses. After establishing accurate diagnoses, students articulate the treatment principles they are applying and identify appropriate
treatment plans, including specific point prescriptions and other potential treatments. Under close faculty supervision, students refine their skills by practicing in small groups and on each other.

Introduction to Chinese Herbal Medicine

This course introduces the history, development and application of Chinese herbal medicine, as well as basic botany and plant taxonomy. Covered are important traditional and contemporary herbal texts, traditional Chinese medical theory as applied to herbal medicine, and the basic concepts underlying the properties and functions of herbs: the four qis, five tastes, channel entry, functional tendencies and combination theory. Also covered are clinical application issues, such as the importance of accurate diagnoses, combining Chinese herbal and acupuncture treatments, toxicity, side effects and preparation methods.

Introduction to Craniosacral Therapy (Elective)

This one-credit course will introduce the student to craniosacral therapy, a light touch therapy developed by Dr. William Garner Sutherland a little more than 100 years ago. Students will learn exercises that will lead to palpation of the rhythms of the body that when functioning smoothly, support an underlying expression of health. Students will also learn to palpate for patterns of disharmony and trauma in the system, that when corrected, can lead to a greater expression of health.

Many students who have studied craniosacral therapy have reported that the skills they learned allowed them to feel qi for the first time, as these rhythmic expressions are indeed the movement of qi deep within the body. Qi moves in every structure and tissue including, but not limited to the meridian system. When a student realizes that qi moves in a rhythm and that it can be felt in the cranial bones, vertebrae, organs, muscles and meridians, it is often an experience of profound revelation that that helps one understand how the body itself expresses health and can participate in its own healing process.

Introduction to Japanese Acupuncture Styles

This course presents an overview of the historical and theoretical roots of Japanese acupuncture styles, along with their diagnostic and treatment techniques. Students also learn Japanese techniques for palpating the abdomen, identifying diagnostic patterns and assessing pulse qualities. Students work in small, supervised groups to practice these clinical skills and develop a basic understanding of the application of Japanese acupuncture.

Introduction to Japanese Clinical Internship

In preparation for using Japanese acupuncture modalities in Acupuncture Clinical Internship, this course includes practice in meridian style five phase and Manaka ion pumping cord style diagnosis and treatment.  Students practice intake, diagnosis and treatment skills, and practice on each other in small, supervised clinical groups, which imitate actual clinical settings.  This intensive practice allows students to refine their Japanese acupuncture and treatment planning skills.

Japanese Acupuncture Styles Clinical Internship

Having extensively practiced clinical assessment and treatment skills, student interns begin to work directly with patients in clinical settings. Under close supervision, student interns assume responsibility for patients’ care, including intake evaluations, diagnoses, structuring treatment plans, carrying out the treatments, and assessing progress. Interns also advise patients on health practices, arrange follow-up care and make referrals. Clinical Internships take place in the NESA Clinic and at NESA satellite clinics. Clinics may be scheduled at various times during the academic year and interns will be responsible for some patient recruitment.

Student interns who have successfully completed the Japanese Acupuncture Styles: Introduction to Clinic course may begin to treat patients with Japanese techniques. Dual and Japanese Acupuncture Styles Track students must complete at least three (but no more than six) Japanese style clinical internships.
 

Living Anatomy and Structural Analysis

This course covers the main components of the musculoskeletal system, combining lecture with extensive hands on practice. Students learn the location, origin, insertion and action of all the major muscles, as well as the bones, bony landmarks, and ligaments. Basic structural analysis is introduced, so students can begin to see the postural patterns that often precede and underlie musculoskeletal imbalances and pain syndromes. In addition, some basic principles of orthopedic assessment are discussed and demonstrated.

Local Treatments

Based on classical theories of Oriental Medicine and modern information about disease and healing, this course focuses on the application of techniques used to resolve symptoms. Through the practice of careful palpation and the consideration of diagnostic and treatment points, students learn the most appropriate techniques for achieving symptomatic change.

Maintaining Life: Healthy Living for Acupuncture Students (Elective)

In this experiential class students are introduced to the principles of Chinese Medicine as they were described in early original texts. Students will learn to understand these literary insights as a practical means of improving their own health. Using movement and breathing students will be introduced to the ancient practices of Dao Yin and Qi Gong in order to feel and learn the location of the acupuncture meridians. Every class includes practicing to assess and treat a fellow student.  Students will learn to assess through palpation of important acu-points and how to develop a treatment strategy.  Students will learn a range of manual techniques to move Qi and Blood along meridian pathways and acupressure techniques connecting specific points. Upon completion of this class students will have a much better sense of managing their own health through the spectrum of Chinese Medicine. They will have insight into their own challenges and aptitudes for being a healthy NESA student and their journey toward becoming a  healthy healer.

Materials and Methods of Traditional Chinese Medicine I

Combining classroom lecture, demonstration and supervised practice in small groups, this two term course lays the foundation for acquiring clinical acupuncture skills. First, the basic concepts of microbiology are reviewed to promote an understanding of infection control. 

Clean Needle Technique (CNT) and universal precautions, including the proper use of personal protective equipment. Proper sterilization procedures and maintenance of medical equipment and environments also are covered. Students develop the basic therapeutic skills of needle insertion, removal and manipulation for tonification and dispersion; direct and indirect moxibustion techniques; cupping; gua sha; plum blossom; electrical stimulation; and bloodletting. Special emphasis is placed on developing sensitivity to the patients’ reactions to these procedures and responding to adverse treatment reactions. The importance of safe techniques and awareness of precautions and contraindications for various treatment methods are also covered.

Materials and Methods of Traditional Chinese Medicine II

Combining classroom lecture, demonstration and supervised practice in small groups, this two term course lays the foundation for acquiring clinical acupuncture skills. First, the basic concepts of microbiology are reviewed to promote an understanding of infection control.

Clean Needle Technique (CNT) and universal precautions, including the proper use of personal protective equipment. Proper sterilization procedures and maintenance of medical equipment and environments also are covered. Students develop the basic therapeutic skills of needle insertion, removal and manipulation for tonification and dispersion; direct and indirect moxibustion techniques; cupping; gua sha; plum blossom; electrical stimulation; and bloodletting. Special emphasis is placed on developing sensitivity to the patients’ reactions to these procedures and responding to adverse treatment reactions. The importance of safe techniques and awareness of precautions and contraindications for various treatment methods are also covered.

Microbiology with Lab

This practical course for health care practitioners focuses on the microorganisms relevant to clinical practice, the body's defense responses, and methods of preventing disease transmission.  Combining lecture and laboratory study, this course also covers the characteristics, activities, distribution, and effects of specific pathogenic organisms on the body. Lab included

Microsystems of Acupuncture Treatment

This course provides an overview of auricular and scalp acupuncture with a focus on the therapeutic potential within an overall acupuncture treatment program or when each modality is used alone. The physical structure of the body as it relates to each microsystem is studied in detail. Students learn how to locate microsystem acupuncture points and how points are linked physiologically with the internal organs. Students practice needling techniques and point location under faculty supervision.

Organic Chemistry

This course, the second in the chemistry series, covers characteristic structures, physical properties, functional groups, and reactions of the different families of compounds.  Reactions with acids, bases, and redox agents as they occur in carbon-based life forms are also studied.

Oriental Bodywork Therapy

This course trains students to perform and apply a range of massage techniques in specific areas. Such techniques extend acupuncturists’ treatment options for many problems and help develop palpation skills. The course consists of lecture, demonstration and practice.

Orthopedic Acupuncture

This course focuses on the most common injuries and pain syndromes encountered in clinical practice. Diagnoses and treatment strategies are discussed for such conditions as low back pain, neck pain, frozen shoulder, tennis elbow, carpal tunnel syndrome, sciatica, hip pain, iliotibial band syndrome, knee and ankle injuries, and plantar fascitis. By the end of this course, students have a basic understanding of the mechanisms and treatment of musculoskeletal trauma. For those who wish to specialize in this area, this course serves as a
foundation for further study.

Patient-Provider Relationships

This course covers major diagnostic categories of psychological issues. Students learn to evaluate psychological health and identify cases in which referral for further assessment or treatment is indicated. Topics covered include basic assessment techniques, suicide risk, substance abuse, and survivors of trauma or abuse. Students learn skills for building rapport and trust, and for communicating effectively. Fundamental self awareness tools are identified, fostering selfcare of the healer.

Point Location I

Through a combination of lectures, demonstrations and supervised practice in small groups, students learn the precise location of all acupuncture points on the twelve main channels, as well as the conception (ren) and governing (du) channels. A number of extra points not located on the major channels also are identified. Students locate points by palpating anatomical landmarks and applying a body measurement system based on the anatomical Chinese inch (cun). Also covered are proper needle depth, angle of insertion and contraindications. Students learn the English terms for the meridians and point numbers - a system of nomenclature adopted by the World Health Organization.

Point Location II

Through a combination of lectures, demonstrations and supervised practice in small groups, students learn the precise location of all acupuncture points on the twelve main channels, as well as the conception (ren) and governing (du) channels. A number of extra points not located on the major channels also are identified. Students locate points by palpating anatomical landmarks and applying a body measurement system based on the anatomical Chinese inch (cun). Also covered are proper needle depth, angle of insertion and contraindications. Students learn the English terms for the meridians and point numbers - a system of nomenclature adopted by the World Health Organization.

Point Location Tutorials I and II (Optional)

These tutorials provide students working in small groups with an opportunity for additional supervised review and practice of point location skills (fee).

Practice Development and Business Management

From the planning stages to daily business affairs, this course focuses on practical issues that arise in establishing and maintaining an acupuncture and/or Chinese herbal medicine practice. Scope of practice, business management, record keeping, accounting systems, marketing strategies, public speaking, office information systems and liability insurance are covered. Professional, ethical and legal issues relating to the practice of acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine also are discussed. Experts discuss practice management issues and share their expertise.

Pulse Diagnosis Level 123 (Elective)

This advanced course teaches a step-by-step process, based on the Nan Jing and Classic Pulse, of assessing six pulse positions to determine pulse strength and pulse quality, using pulse for diagnostic purposes as well as for feedback on effects of treatment. This course is a treasured opportunity to study with Kuwahara sensei, acquiring skills that will be immediately useful, with every patient.

Research Assisting (Elective)

Students who would like to get first-hand research experience without enrolling in a formal course are encouraged to inquire about the possibility of becoming a volunteer research assistant.  Even though this is not a formal course it requires dedication and responsibility.  In exchange you will receive instruction and involvement that is compatible with your available level of commitment.  volunteer research assistants receive no financial remuneration or credits towards their master's degrees at NESA. No credit awarded.

Research I: Design and Evaluation

Through lecture, discussion and group projects, this course examines different approaches of qualitative and quantitative research. The assumptions underlying the broad traditions of research design selection and methodological considerations are discussed. Current literature on acupuncture research is discussed to provide students with an understanding of the special problems and requirements of modern acupuncture research. Students learn important research concepts, the vocabulary of research, various methods for conducting research, how to synthesize research literature, and how to formally report research findings.

Research II: Mentored Practicum (Elective)

This course provides first-hand experience in working on a research project.  The first two three-hour meetings refresh students' understanding of the fundamentals of research and special issues associated with research in complimentary and alternative medicine (CAM), and assist in the choice of the term research project.  Students may work in small groups and are assigned a supervisor/mentor who is a faculty member from either NESA or one of the collaborating institutions.  The choice of a research topic is made in collaboration with the research faculty advisor.  The Research Department maintains opportunities for students to be involved in the forefront of exciting areas of CAM research.  Students are expected to attend all NESA research seminars during the terms that they take this course (approximately one per month), and to participate in regular group meetings involving the review of relevant research literature.  The primary assessment tools include a written paper of publication standard and the presentation of a seminar.

Root Treatment Strategies I (Honchiho)

This course provides students with the theoretical foundations and application of two predominant therapeutic styles of Japanese Acupuncture: Meridian 5 Phase and the Extraordinary Vessels (one form of polarity treatment). Students will learn to diagnose using pulse and abdominal palpation in combination with visual and verbal signs and symptoms, which form specific treatment strategy patterns. This course helps students refine their diagnostic skills and increase sensitivity and ability to distinguish patterns. Extensive hands on practice in small groups is included. Students will learn more about Japanese style materials and methods such as needling with an insertion tube, tonification and dispersion needling techniques and various moxibustion techniques.

Root Treatment Strategies II (Honchiho)

This course provides students with the theoretical foundations and application of two predominant therapeutic styles of Japanese Acupuncture: Meridian 5 Phase and the Extraordinary Vessels (one form of polarity treatment). Students will learn to diagnose using pulse and abdominal palpation in combination with visual and verbal signs and symptoms, which form specific treatment strategy patterns. This course helps students refine their diagnostic skills and increase sensitivity and ability to distinguish patterns. Extensive hands on practice in small groups is included. Students will learn more about Japanese style materials and methods such as needling with an insertion tube, tonification and dispersion needling techniques and various moxibustion techniques.

Shakuju

Based on the lifelong work of Shoji Kobayashi, Shakuju encompasses the palpation of both the radial pulse and abdomen as derived from the classic Nan Jing. Treatment strategy focuses on the back shu points, specific sequences, and needle techniques. This course has both didactic and practical components.

May be taken as elective by non-JAS Track students on a space-available basis if they have completed JAS: Root Treatment Strategies I.

Shiatsu (Elective)

This course is an introduction to the principles of Shiatsu - moving from one's center, applying appropriate pressure, and sensing an energetic change.  This hands-on course helps to develop palpation skills.  The aim is to develop an awareness of the sensitivity of the hands in feeling the qi, in discerning imbalances in the meridians, and in promoting energetic flow in the meridians.  It concentrates on working the yang meridians through Shiatsu techniques using the palm, thumb, elbow and knee.  Acupressure point combinations are taught for releasing the neck, shoulders, and back.

Sotai (Elective)

This course gives students a theoretical and practical understanding of the basic application of Sotai Therapy for self and clients.  Upon completion of this course, students should have the skills and knowledge to apply basic Sotai techniques in clinical situations to enhance the effectiveness of treatments.

Survey of Chinese Classical Medical Texts

By comparing Chinese medical texts, students begin to develop familiarity with the origins of Chinese medical practice. Through selected readings, students explore the development of acupuncture and Oriental medicine strategies. These readings form the basis for examining treatment strategies in modern clinical settings, and for understanding the conceptual basis of modern Oriental Medicine.

Traditional Chinese Medical Theory I

As an essential foundation for understanding Chinese medical theory and its use in the diagnosis and treatment of disharmony and disease, this course first covers the basic concepts of Chinese medicine - Tao, qi, yin and yang, the Five Element correspondences and their cycles known as wu xing - and how they relate to human health. Building on this foundation, students learn the significance of Signs and Symptoms of Disease by studying various approaches to diagnoses. These approaches include the Eight Principles (ba gang), the Fundamental Substances (qi, jing, shen, xue, and jinye), the functions and interrelationships of yin (zang) and yang (fu) organs, meridian theory, the Five Elements, the Six Stages and the four levels of disease progression. Among other topics covered are the etiology of disease - including the Six External Evils (liu yin), Seven Emotions (qi qing) and the Neither Internal nor External Causes (bu nei wai yin) - as well as syndrome differentiation, the four methods of diagnosis, treatment principles and the functional categories of points.

Traditional Chinese Medical Theory II

As an essential foundation for understanding Chinese medical theory and its use in the diagnosis and treatment of disharmony and disease, this course first covers the basic concepts of Chinese medicine - Tao, qi, yin and yang, the Five Element correspondences and their cycles known as wu xing - and how they relate to human health. Building on this foundation, students learn the significance of Signs and Symptoms of Disease by studying various approaches to diagnoses. These approaches include the Eight Principles (ba gang), the Fundamental Substances (qi, jing, shen, xue, and jinye), the functions and interrelationships of yin (zang) and yang (fu) organs, meridian theory, the Five Elements, the Six Stages and the four levels of disease progression. Among other topics covered are the etiology of disease - including the Six External Evils (liu yin), Seven Emotions (qi qing) and the Neither Internal nor External Causes (bu nei wai yin) - as well as syndrome differentiation, the four methods of diagnosis, treatment principles and the functional categories of points.

Traditional Chinese Medicine Etiology and Pathology of Disease I

This three course series integrates the theoretical information presented in Traditional Chinese Medical Theory I and II through the study of the etiology of disharmony within several common categories of illness. Students focus on differential diagnosis within each category and learn to organize signs and symptoms theoretically and understand organ relationships and the underlying causes and progression of disease. Treatment principles and strategies for each diagnosis are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on developing the ability to proceed logically from signs and symptoms to formulating a clear diagnosis, and on understanding the etiology of the condition, treatment principles and point prescriptions.

Traditional Chinese Medicine Etiology and Pathology of Disease II

This three course series integrates the theoretical information presented in Traditional Chinese Medical Theory I and II through the study of the etiology of disharmony within several common categories of illness. Students focus on differential diagnosis within each category and learn to organize signs and symptoms theoretically and understand organ relationships and the underlying causes and progression of disease. Treatment principles and strategies for each diagnosis are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on developing the ability to proceed logically from signs and symptoms to formulating a clear diagnosis, and on understanding the etiology of the condition, treatment principles and point prescriptions.

Traditional Chinese Medicine Etiology and Pathology of Disease III

In this three-course sequence, students learn to diagnose and treat a number of common illnesses from the perspective of TCM. Differentiation of syndromes is emphasized as students learn to identify signs and symptoms that characterize each diagnosis. Treatment strategies and point prescriptions are covered for all the conditions.

Clinical research findings are included for many conditions, establishing a foundation for evidence-informed practice.

Western Nutrition

In this introductory course, students receive an overview of the healing properties of foods, nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and specific diets. The functions of various nutrients, in what food they are found, and how they impact health are discussed. Students gain a better understanding of the clinical uses of specific diets and nutritional supplements used by many holistic practitioners.

Western Pathophysiology and Pharmacology I

A survey of Western medical history and its major areas of specialization are essential for appropriate referrals to Western medical providers and for effective communication. Throughout this course series, students survey each of the major body systems to develop an understanding of the physiological process, as well as the signs and symptoms of illnesses as diagnosed and treated from a Western medical perspective. The nature and clinical relevance of various conditions, as well as Western medicine’s clinical diagnostic techniques are discussed. Pharmaceuticals used in treatment are covered according to their category, effect on physiological functions and possible interactions and side effects. Students learn to recognize signs and symptoms that differentiate emergency and life threatening conditions - which should be referred to a Western medical practitioner - from other conditions properly treated with Oriental medicine. Western Pathophysiology and Pharmacology I is a prerequisite to all other courses in the series.  All others may be taken out of sequence.

Western Pathophysiology and Pharmacology II

A survey of Western medical history and its major areas of specialization are essential for appropriate referrals to Western medical providers and for effective communication. Throughout this course series, students survey each of the major body systems to develop an understanding of the physiological process, as well as the signs and symptoms of illnesses as diagnosed and treated from a Western medical perspective. The nature and clinical relevance of various conditions, as well as Western medicine’s clinical diagnostic techniques are discussed. Pharmaceuticals used in treatment are covered according to their category, effect on physiological functions and possible interactions and side effects. Students learn to recognize signs and symptoms that differentiate emergency and life threatening conditions - which should be referred to a Western medical practitioner - from other conditions properly treated with Oriental medicine. Western Pathophysiology and Pharmacology I is a prerequisite to all other courses in the series.  All others may be taken out of sequence.

Western Pathophysiology and Pharmacology III

A survey of Western medical history and its major areas of specialization are essential for appropriate referrals to Western medical providers and for effective communication. Throughout this course series, students survey each of the major body systems to develop an understanding of the physiological process, as well as the signs and symptoms of illnesses as diagnosed and treated from a Western medical perspective. The nature and clinical relevance of various conditions, as well as Western medicine’s clinical diagnostic techniques are discussed. Pharmaceuticals used in treatment are covered according to their category, effect on physiological functions and possible interactions and side effects. Students learn to recognize signs and symptoms that differentiate emergency and life threatening conditions - which should be referred to a Western medical practitioner - from other conditions properly treated with Oriental medicine. Western Pathophysiology and Pharmacology I is a prerequisite to all other courses in the series.  All others may be taken out of sequence.

Western Pathophysiology and Pharmacology IV

A survey of Western medical history and its major areas of specialization are essential for appropriate referrals to Western medical providers and for effective communication. Throughout this course series, students survey each of the major body systems to develop an understanding of the physiological process, as well as the signs and symptoms of illnesses as diagnosed and treated from a Western medical perspective. The nature and clinical relevance of various conditions, as well as Western medicine’s clinical diagnostic techniques are discussed. Pharmaceuticals used in treatment are covered according to their category, effect on physiological functions and possible interactions and side effects. Students learn to recognize signs and symptoms that differentiate emergency and life threatening conditions - which should be referred to a Western medical practitioner - from other conditions properly treated with Oriental medicine. Western Pathophysiology and Pharmacology I is a prerequisite to all other courses in the series.  All others may be taken out of sequence.